Assoc. Professor Dr. Mohd Salleh Aman
University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur
International Seminar, Jambi, Indonesia
Saturday, 09 May 2009
Sport plays an important role at the in individual, community, national and global level. For the individual, sport enhances one’s personal abilities, general health and self knowledge. On the national level, sport contributes to economic and social growth, improve public health and bring different communities together. On the global level, sport can have long- lasting positive impact on country’s development, public health, peace and environment. Sports are becoming one of the world's biggest and most lucrative industries, and they're not just the traditional games but also the high performance, competition and events, that involved management. Sports management has many different facets. Sports managers can handle the financial aspects of an athletic organization, create marketing strategies for special events, direct athletics in a school setting or help athletes negotiate contracts or sponsorship and endorsement deals. Other responsibilities may involve public relations, sporting goods sales, facility management, athletic fund raising or sports broadcasting. Those who focus on the sports medicine side of sports management will help athletes stay healthy through nutritional, fitness and psychological well-being. Regardless of specific responsibilities, sports management professionals often work irregular hours, including nights and weekends, and do a significant amount of travelling.
Human Resource Management (HRM): Concept and Practices
Humans are an organization's greatest assets; without them, everyday business functions such as managing cash flow, making business transactions, communicating through all forms of media, and dealing with customers could not be completed. Humans and the potential they possess drive an organization. Today's organizations are continuously changing. Organizational change impacts not only the business but also its employees. In order to maximize organizational effectiveness, human potential—individuals' capabilities, time, and talents—must be managed. Human resource management works to ensure that employees are able to meet the organization's goals. "Human resource management is responsible for how people are treated in organizations. It is responsible for bringing people into the organization, helping them perform their work, compensating them for their labors, and solving problems that arise" (Cherrington, 1995, p. 5). There are seven management functions of a human resources department that will be specifically addressed: staffing, performance appraisals, compensation and benefits, training and development, employee and labor relations, safety and health, and human resource research.
Human Resource Practices can be classified as “control” or “commitment” practices. The control approach aims to increase efficiency and rely on strict rules and rewards are based on outputs while the commitment approach aims to increase effectiveness and rely on conditions that encourage employees to identify with the goals of the organisation and work hard to accomplish those goals. High commitment human resource strategies work well synergistically, reflective of a general commitment strategy by forging psychological links between organisation and employee goals by developing committed workforce who can be trusted to use their discretion to carry out job tasks in ways that are consistent with organisation goals (Whitener, 2001; Meyer and Allen, 1997).
Pfeffer (1998) suggested that soft or high commitment human resource management practices are those that making; extensive communication about functioning and performance of the employees’ service; designing training for skills and personal development of employees; selective hiring; team-working where idea are pooled and creative solution are encouraged; rewards system that commensurate with effort; reduction of status between the management and staff and all workers are valued regardless of their role. These prescribe bundle of HR practices results in greater employee commitment and committed employees are more likely to exert themselves on behalf of the organisation. Further, the most fundamental process to influence effective commitment is an employee’s personal fulfilment based on met needs and positive work experiences (Meyer and Allen, 1997).
High commitment human resource management practices shapes employee behaviours and attitudes (job satisfaction and commitment) by developing psychological links between organisations and employee goals (Whiterner, 2001).This is supported by Williams (2004) that eight out of ten high commitment practices examined such as training, team working, reduced status, communication and involving employees in decision making had significant effects on worker attitudes based on the logic of normative theories of HRM. On the hand, Marchington and Grugulis (2000) critised Pfeffer’s work idea of ‘best-practice’ HRM practices of putting people first with suggest that particular bundle of HR practices can increase profits via commitment irrespective of organisational, industrial, or national context. They justify that these practices may not be so beneficial to workers, there is a decline of mutual commitment between the organisation and the employees and employees’ perceptions of work are what really matter. This is probably due to similar HR techniques may be perceived in dissimilar ways by employees in different situations.
Careers in Sport
When we talk about careers in sport we usually think of the glamorous lifestyle of some of the top sports stars. These sportspeople have outstanding ability. We must remember they are the lucky few. The rewards for the majority of professional sportspeople are much smaller.
There are many careers in sport apart from performing. Most of these jobs do not make the headlines, although they are essential to sport. For example, racing car drivers could not race without the team of people who support them.
Sport as a career
Working with performers
Science and health
Sport and exercise adviser
Sport Centre- manager
Sports Dev Officer
Job description: Playing sport at a high level
Main quality: Outstanding ability
Working with performers
Job description: Developing sports skills in others
Main quality: Ability to analyse and improve skill
Science and health
Job description: Improving sport performance
Main quality: Understanding of sport medicine
Job description: Organising sporting activities
Main quality: Motivating others to take part
Job description: Describing sport
Main quality: Communication skills
Job description: Applying business understanding to sport
Main quality: Ability to see potential for profit in sport
Job description: Doing practical work of a high standard
Main quality: High level practical skill
Future plan of human resource in sport management
We need to prepare our students at the Universities for advancing community development through sport and recreation program and professional / certification courses for jobs and careers at and in the area of the following:
1.School, college and university
4.Retail (specific and general): sport, fitness, recreation equipment
7.Sport industry: motor sport, boats, fishing, dive, equestrian, swimming, x-sport, golf, martial art, etc.
8.Fitness: centres, gymnasiums, corporate, etc.
9.Beauty centres, health SPAs
10.Personal fitness trainer
12.Martial arts centres
13.Children’s playgrounds, parks, theme parks
14.Clubs: single, multi sports
15.Hospitals: physiotherapy, sport medicine, fitness
19.Radio, TV, newspapers
22.High rise buildings
33.Sport as entertainment
Research areas to be explored for creating more jobs in sport:
1.The economic impact of sport in Indonesia – including consumer sector, commercial sport sector, commercial non-sport sector, voluntary sector, central government sector and overseas sector.
2.A corporate approach to sport development in Indonesia – government link sport companies (government and private sectors joining forces for better use of the resources to generate income for sport development)
3.Creating and implementing sport tourism events in Indonesia – how to bid the international sport events. Make sure that the events have an economic impact on hotels, transport, food and beverages, places of interest, etc.
4.Human resource training needs for the sport industry in Indonesia – develop the training curriculum, teaching materials.
5.The development of outdoor recreation areas – walking, cycling, hiking, climbing, camping, sites for water sports, fitness and health, martial arts, hotels and resorts (Propose title: The development of the outdoor recreation industry and tourism in Indonesia).
Cherrington, David J. (1995). The Management of Human Resources. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Marchington, M & Grugulis, I. (2000) Best practice’ human resource management: perfect opportunities or dangerous illusion? International Journal of Human Resources Management 11(6), 1104-1124.
Meyer, J.P. & Allen N.J. (1997) Commitment in the workplace: Theory, research and application: Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Pfeffer, J. (1998) ‘The Human Equation: Building profit by putting people first’. Boston MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Whiterner, E.M. (2001) Do “high commitment” human resource practices affect employee commitment? A cross level analysis using hierarchical linear modelling. Journal of Management, 27, 515-535.
UNDERSTANDING SPORT MANAGEMENT
Mohd Salleh Aman, Ph.D
Assoc. Professor, Sport Centre, University of Malaya
Definition of Sport: Sport means all forms of physical activity which, through casual or organised participation, aim at expressing or improving physical fitness and mental well-being, forming social relationships or obtaining results in competition at all levels. This is a wide definition of sport that extends far beyond traditional team games to incorporate individual sport and fitness-related activities such as aerobics and certain dance activities, as well as recreational activities such as long walks and cycling. It extends from casual and informal participation to more serious organised club sport, and for the minority involves complete commitment in pursuit of the highest levels of excellence at Olympic and World level. This wide and inclusive definition of sport extends its relevance to the whole population and its value as a significant player in the broader social agenda.
Sport Management: Sport Management includes event management, team and player management, as well as all elements of sport marketing, environmental analysis, market research, segmentation exercises, competitive analysis, SWOT analysis, budgeting and cash flow projections, etc. There are numerous aspects to sports management, some of them generic and others facility or sports-specific. Generic aspects of sports management include financial management, human resource management, marketing, health and safety management and public relations. Sport-specific aspects of
Sports Management will include facility management and operation, facility / activity programming, facility-related aspects of health and safety, sports marketing and sports development.
Sport manager’s skills: A sport manager needs to have both generic and specific management skills, and background knowledge of the general processes of management. In general terms, the aims of management are to ensure the best utilisation of resources, including people (human resources), money (financial resources) and information, to achieve short-term objectives and long-term goals of the organisations. The sport managers need to be clear about principles and objectives, know the resources and their value and understand the performance that is expected. What is being managed include the workplace, people, day-to-day operations, facilities, activities, development process and partnership working. According to Watt (2003), the potential manager should have technical knowledge, credibility, integrity, honesty, inspiration, commitment, enthusiasm, resilience, determination, willingness, love of sport, administrative ability, people skills, sense of awareness and sense of humour.
The Business of Sport: Sport is one of the fastest growing commercial activities in the world. Though the sports industry has not have the prodigious growth rate of the internet, it is – along with tourism – a rapidly growing industry that is not only gaining popularity on the global scene, but one that is constantly evolving to adapt to changing personal attitudes, new-fangled technologies and modern lifestyles. The sport industry has contributed a greater margin to the global GDP than ever before. In other words, it is a global industry that fosters a range of economic activity, providing employment – and entertainment – across all social strata globally. Sport has created a wider range of jobs that youngsters today can look forward to. E.g. sports psychology, sport medicine, sport technology, sport statistics, sport advertising, sport management, sports event management, sport marketing, to name a few. Sport also gives entertainment value - the fact that it provides sheer entertainment in live stadiums or sedate living rooms is the main reason sport has grown in popularity all over the world.
Sport management program: The right program should provide an understanding of sports and sport management. Different sport segments should be included in the curriculum such as professional, event and facilities, sports marketing, sports media and sporting goods. The curriculum committee should also think about looking at current student profiles (experience, goals, past education), examples of real-world learning brought into the classroom (class work, practicum projects, assistantships, internships, consulting) and instructors teaching subjects of particular interest (industry experience in area, involvement in topic associations, research and publishing). Nowadays, experience in the industry is of key importance in sports. The community connected to a program is a powerful resource for sport management students. Building or having a large, active network within the sports industry can also greatly expand your job prospect contact options. This comes into play not only when prospecting for permanent positions, but also when working on class projects developing mentor relationships and landing internships.
POST GRADUATE RESEARCH IN SPORT MANAGEMENT
1)Responsibilities of A Supervisor
2)Thesis Examination Report
Responsibilities of a Supervisor
To assist and advise the student in the design, development and completion of a research degree program within the stipulated time
Effective supervisory relationship is crucial - ‘smart partnership’ / win-win orientation
Selection of Supervisor
Principal supervisor is normally an academic staff member of the University who demonstrates expertise and interest in the candidate’s chosen area of research.
Co-supervisor plays a significant role in the supervisory process and while not necessarily an expert in the content domain; to work closely with the principal supervisor in ensuring that the candidates is offered advice and assistance that is consistent and in-line with the mutually agreed arrangements.
Responsibilities of A Supervisor
1.Ensure that the students understand and adhere to the rules and regulations of the University’s graduate programme.
2.Establish at the beginning of the student’s research program the requirements on the frequency and format of meetings and progress reports. It is expected that a minimum schedule of fortnightly meetings be adhered to.
3.Assist the student in the planning and implementation of a research program that could be completed within the stipulated time.
4.Monitor the student’s progress in reviewing the necessary literature, maintaining systematic procedures, working methods, record keeping, etc.
5.Assist the student in the content domain of the research and ensure that the student participates in seminars and conferences and undertakes journal publication exercises.
6.Encourage the student to become an active member of University’s academic community by participating in seminars / conferences / workshops / intellectual discourses.
7.Determine the reasons for the student’s unsatisfactory progress. Factors for this may be as follows:
a.Lack of appropriate knowledge in the content domain,
b.Deficiency in research skills,
c.Lack of intellectual initiative,
d.Lack of appreciation of supporting literature,
e.Lack of appropriate resources (equipment, facilities, etc.)
f.Lack of urgency and time commitment,
g.Deficiency in language and general communication skills,
h.Lack of academic writing skills.
8.If the student’s progress is deemed to be unsatisfactory, then the necessary reasons for this (unsatisfactory) have to be determined.
9.The thesis prepared adheres to the format stipulated by the Institute of Graduate Studies.
10.Supervisors should read and review the drafts of the thesis as they are prepared and provide constructive feedback within one month or less.
11.When the thesis is ready for submission, the supervisor may propose the name of potential examiners to the Faculty Committee of Graduate Studies.
12.Ensure that the candidate understands the nature and process of the examination of the thesis.
13.Attend the candidate’s oral examination as an observer and make clarifications or suggestions when called upon to do so.
14.Ensure and certify that the necessary revisions are made to the thesis as determined by the examiners and that it is resubmitted to the Institute of Graduate Studies.
15.Certify that the final thesis has been successfully completed, and that it fulfills all the requirements stipulated by the university.
Thesis Examination Report
1.THESIS TOPIC (TITLE)
Reflects the actual research issues addressed in the study
The use of abbreviations are not allowed
The abstract accurately reflects the study that was conducted.
The abstract should contain a:
(i)brief statement of the problem or objectives
(ii)concise description of the research method and design
(iii)summary of the major findings
3.RESEARCH PROBLEMS AND OBJECTIVES
Background to the pertinent research issues is well discussed
The research problems well defined
The objectives are clearly stated and met by the research methodology
Suggest improvements, if necessary.
4.SCOPE AND RELEVANCE
The scope of the study is appropriate for the degree it is intended.
(i)Field of study
(ii)Research issues in a particular field
(iii)Practicability of the addressed research problem
Whether the literature review:
(i) Is relevant to the research issues
(ii) Is comprehensive and takes into consideration past and current literature
(iii) Is well reviewed, summarized, organized and consistent with the sequence
of the research issues addressed in the study
(iv) Is proportionate relative to the rest of the thesis
(v) Contain too much text book materials (it should be kept to a minimum)
6.METHODOLOGY/MATERIALS AND METHODS
Whether the :
(i) Collection, strengths and weaknesses of the data used in the study are
(ii) Research design (e.g sample size, choice of methods etc) is suitable and
appropriate to meet or address the specified objectives or research issues of the study.
(iii) Use or choice of methods is well defined and justified
(iv) Methods used in the study are clearly described to allow replication by
(v) Statistical analysis or package used is appropriate
(vi) Methods used are properly and adequately referenced
7.ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS
Whether the :
(i) Result obtained are in agreement with the stated objectives of study
(ii) Interpretation of the findings is logical or acceptable within the context of
the issues of interest
(iii) Analysis of the data using the chosen methodology has been properly
(iv) Findings are discussed with appropriate references
(i)The sequence of chapters, and sections in each chapter are able to facilitate the understanding of the research issues
(ii)Tables, pictures and any other form of summarized information properly labeled, numbered, and placed in the appropriate sequence and section of the thesis
(iii)The same research data is presented in more than one form (e.g. both table and figure)
(iv)Figures especially photographs are clearly reproduced.
(i) The extensiveness of the bibliography/reference list
(ii) Whether current references are included
(iii) Whether any reference cited in the text is missing or wrongly cited, and
(iv) Whether the format used in consistent throughout the list.
(vi)ACCOMPLISMENT AND/OR MERITS
(i)The author has clearly identified and discussed the contributions of the findings to the knowledge in the area, and the applicability of the findings in addressing the research problems in the study
(ii)The stated objectives are achieved
(iii)There are any other accomplishments that merit a mention
a.The main weaknesses of the research and their impacts on the findings are properly addressed by the author
b.There are any other demerits (Example: contents, language, relevance, etc.)
Conclude the evaluation of the thesis by stating your professional opinion on the overall acceptability of the thesis (after taking into account all the above considerations), whether it is worthy of the degree pursued or otherwise. The outcome of the examination should be reported as one of the following:
i)With dinstinction when all or most of the research findings have either been published or accepted for publication in citation-indexed journals, and requires minimal improvement in spelling, grammar and syntax only;
ii)Accepted with some corrections in spelling, grammar and syntax.
b)Accepted with minor modifications
A thesis is accepted with minor modifications if it requires any of the following: reformatting of chapters, improvement in declaration of research objectives or statements, insertion of missing references, amendment of inaccurately cited references, and minimal improvement in spelling, grammar, syntax and presentation.
c)Accepted with major modifications
A thesis is accepted with major modifications if it requires any of the following but not additional experimental work or data collection: major revision of the literature, major improvement in the description of the methodology, statistical analysis of the research data, re-presentation of written data in the form of figures or tables, and improvement in the discussion of results. The examiner may recommend the candidate seek the assistance of an editorial service if errors in grammar and syntax are extensive.
d)Re-submission of thesis
The thesis should be recommended for re-submission if it does not meet the scope of the degree for which it is intended, the objectives of the research are not met or when there are obvious flaws in the research design or methodology, and therefore, requires additional experiments or data collection.
A ‘Fail’ status is given if the thesis does not achieve the level of the degree for which it is intended.
All the best to all researchers in Sport Management:
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Salleh Aman, University of Malaya
firstname.lastname@example.org Jambi, Indonesia, 2009